The shoulder

Your shoulder is a complicated area because it does several things, which is why when something goes wrong, it can take a while to fix. This is an overall look at how the shoulder works, rather than an anatomy lesson.


Bones and connections

It is important to know a few of the connections that your shoulder muscles make with the bones, so you can get an idea of how complex the shoulder is. There are connections between the shoulder blade (scapula) and collar bone (clavicle); between the shoulder blade, collar bone and top of the arm bone (humerus); between the base of the skull, shoulder blade, collar bone and the trunk of the body.

The shoulder joint isn’t a snug fit like the hip joint. Your hip fits into the hip socket and rarely moves out of the socket, unless there is an injury or your tendons are too loose (hypermobile). The shoulder joint is different because the arm bone is allowed more range of movement and doesn’t fit into the joint as tightly. It also means your shoulder is more prone to injury.

What are the main muscles of the shoulder?

The rotator cuff muscles surround the shoulder, giving it support and allowing it to move. The rotator cuff muscles are the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor. They connect the shoulder blade to the humerus and keep the head of the humerus in the socket.

When most people think of the shoulder, they think of the back of the shoulder, but the pectoralis major muscle at the front is very important. It helps with support and movement. It attaches to the clavicle, the sternum (breastbone) and to the humerus. Because it attaches to the arm bone, it helps with movement of the arm as well as the shoulder.

The deltoid muscle on the arm is the strongest shoulder muscle. It has three sections. It attaches to the clavicle in the front and at the back, it attaches to the scapula.

The levator scapulae muscle attaches to the neck and goes down to the top of the scapula.

The trapezius (“the traps”) is a large muscle that attaches at the back of the skull, the spine, the clavicle and part of the scapula. Because it covers a large area of the upper back, it is involved in a lot of the movements of the shoulder.

The rhomboid major and minor muscles attach from the spine to the inner border of the scapula, just below the levator scapulae muscles.

The teres major muscle attaches to the lower outside part of the shoulder blade and to the humerus.

The latissimus dorsi muscle (“the lats”) is another large muscle. It runs from the humerus across the back, attaches to the spine and runs down your body to the top of the hips.

What are the most common injuries?

Rotator cuff injury: is when one of the muscles or tendons of the rotator cuff is torn. This can happen from overuse or from an injury.

Impingement: can be painful if there is an injury or inflammation in the rotator cuff muscles. This is because the edge of the scapula (the acromion) presses on the rotator cuff when you lift your arm.

Tendonitis: inflammation of the tendons.

Frozen shoulder: inflammation of the shoulder that limits mobility.

How does your posture affect your shoulders?

Our lifestyles influence how our muscles and joints are held in place. For example, if you do a lot of things in your daily life that involve your shoulders to be angled forward, your muscles will be continually holding your body in that one posture and this leads to you overworking them. Overused muscles tend to get tighter and less flexible, resulting in discomfort and limited range of motion.

What can massage do for tight shoulders?

Massage helps to ease tight muscles by stretching and warming them and encouraging the muscle fibres to relax. The newly relaxed muscles allow the shoulders to be held in a more natural, less tight position. Massage can also help ease pain and discomfort and allow you to move the arms and shoulders more freely.

How often should you have a massage?

You’re an individual and your posture and lifestyle are unique to you. The length of time between massages should be unique as well. Regular massage helps most people whose bodies are affected by less than perfect posture. What does regular mean? That’s up to you. For some people, it’s a monthly massage and for others it’s less often or even more frequent and there are times when you only need one.

What can you do if you can’t afford a massage?

You can usually release the tension in your muscles through a combination of rest, massage, intelligent stretching (e.g. yoga or pilates) or soaking in a warm bath.

You can find free apps online to help you stretch. If you have a tennis ball at home, you can use that to give yourself a massage. Stand against a wall and roll it around the shoulder or lie on the floor and roll it under your body.

If you have an injury or are in pain, see your doctor before you try anything at home. You need a diagnosis and to rule out anything serious.

I hope this has been helpful. As usual, if I’ve made any errors, please contact me.


The Endocrine System – a system of hormonal balances

The hormone system of your body is called the endocrine system. It is a collection of hormone producing glands and cells in different parts of your body.

What are hormones?

Hormones are complex messenger chemicals that are released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands. They target specific cells and tissues and alter their activity, to regulate body functions, such as metabolism, growth and sexual reproduction.

What’s in a hormone?

Hormones are made up of molecules from steroids, proteins or an amino acid called tyrosine. A hormone doesn’t become active until it is bound to a specific receptor on a cell or inside it. Hormones from proteins bind to receptors on the outside of the cell membrane. Hormones from steriods and tyrosine pass inside the cell and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or the nucleus.

What are the main endocrine glands?

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid is located around your trachea (the windpipe). It releases a hormone called thyroxine which targets your body’s cells to increase your metabolic rate (the rate at which oxygen is used to release energy from glucose). The thyroid gland controls not just metabolism but also body weight, the rate of energy use and heart rate. Unlike most other glands, it can store thyroxine.

Parathyroid Glands

These are four small glands located on the back of the thyroid gland. They release parathyroid hormone which increases levels of calcium in your blood. Calcium is necessary for healthy bones and teeth, as well as to ensure muscles and nerves work properly.

Adrenal Glands

You have two adrenal glands located on top of your kidneys. The adrenal cortex is the outer part and makes several hormones that control metabolism in cells as well as salt levels in body fluids. The inner part is called the adrenal medulla. It produces adrenalin, which helps you respond to stress.

The hormone cortisol is produced by the middle layer of the adrenal cortex. It is a stress hormone and is vital to our survival. It helps maintain blood pressure, glucose levels, controls how the body utilises fat, protein, carbohydrates and minerals and it also helps reduce inflammation. When we are under stress, it is produced in larger amounts.

Pineal Gland

The pineal gland regulates your body’s internal clock by releasing varying amounts of melatonin. You have higher levels of melatonin at night, to make you feel sleepy, and lower amounts during the day.

Pituitary Gland

This “master” gland is the size of a raisin and releases eight hormones. It controls the activities of many other endocrine glands and cells. The pituitary gland hangs from the base of the brain and is attached by a short stalk to the hypothalamus, an area of the brain that controls pituitary function. Pituitary hormones control growth, metabolism and reproduction, either directly or by making other glands release hormones.

The anterior (front) of the pituitary gland produces the hormone prolactin (which stimulates breast milk production after giving birth). It also affects sex hormone levels in ovaries and testes as well as fertility.

Growth hormone stimulates growth in childhood. In adults it is important for maintaining bone and muscle mass. It also affects fat distribution in the body.

Adrenocorticotropin stimulates the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.

Luteinising hormone stimulates testosterone production in men and ovulation in women.

Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes sperm production in men and stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen and develop eggs in women. Luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone work together to enable normal function of the ovaries and testes.

The posterior (back) of the pituitary gland is where the following hormones are stored:

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) regulates water balance in the body. It conserves body water by reducing the amount of water lost in urine.

Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women and may help labour to progress.

Thymus Gland

The thymus gland releases hormones that are essential for the development of lymphocytes, which have the ability to identify invading organisms and are therefore essential to a healthy immune system.


The pancreas releases two hormones which control glucose levels in your blood. One hormone is insulin, which decreases glucose levels. The other hormone is glucagon, which increases glucose levels. Together, they regulate your glucose levels, so you can have enough energy during the day, even when you’re very active.


Eggs are released by the ovaries in adult women. Ovaries also produce the female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, which produce female features and control the menstrual cycle.


The testes make sperm in adult men and also release the male sex hormone testosterone, which stimulates sperm production in the testes and also produces adult male features, including increased facial and body hair and muscular body shape.

Other parts of the body that release hormones

The hypothalamus is a cluster of nerve cells at the base of the brain. Through its connection to the pituitary gland, this part of the brain provides a link between the endocrine system and nervous system. The hypthalamus makes hormones that control the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The heart releases a hormone called atriopeptin that controls blood pressure.

The stomach wall releases a hormone that aids digestion.

The kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin, that increases production of red blood cells in bone marrow.

The small intestine releases hormones that stimulate digestion.

What is adrenal fatigue?

Adrenal fatigue is not a proven medical condition. Symptoms are supposedly trouble falling asleep, chronic fatigue and trouble thinking clearly or finishing tasks (which is natural if you were exhausted). These are common symptoms and could be due to other health problems or just happen during our normal busy lives.

Fatigue can be due to poor sleep habits (which is very common nowadays), stress, poor diet, depression, anaemia, arthritis or diabetes. Because chronic fatigue may be due to another condition, it is important that you see your doctor for a diagnosis rather than a complementary therapist. A therapist (even a nutritionist) may simply sell you a series of supplements or suggest food intolerance tests that is unlikely to get to the cause of the problem.

There is no test to detect adrenal fatigue that is based on scientific facts. If you are offered a blood or saliva test, you’re paying for results that have no basis in science.

There is a danger in taking adrenal hormone supplements as your adrenal glands may stop working and become unable to make adrenaline when needed. If this happens, your adrenal glands can become inactive for a period of time after you stop taking supplements. There is also the risk of developing a life-threatening condition called adrenal crisis.

What is Wilson’s Temperature Syndrome?

I hadn’t heard of this before I started doing research for this post, but I have seen posts about it from people who believe they have it and you can buy books in the UK purporting to help if you have it, so here’s some information in case a complementary therapist diagnoses you with it.

As with adrenal fatigue, the symptoms are non-specific enough to be part of other health problems and include low body temperature and slowing metabolism, caused by illness or stress. It was a theory developed by a Dr Wilson in 1990 who says it represents a thyroid hormone deficiency, even though low hormone levels are not detected in blood tests. This is not an accepted condition and is totally unproven.

And finally

I hope this has helped you understand a little more about how your endocrine system works. If part of the system isn’t working, your doctor may send you for blood tests or to see an endocrinologist, who specialises in the endocrine system. It’s never a good idea to see a complementary therapist for treatment of a complex system of the body. Should you trust your health to someone who may only have completed a short course in selling supplements and tests and tell you about unproven theories, rather than a medical professional who has years of experience and is able to diagnose whether you have a potentially serious condition? As someone who works in the same building as other therapists and who sees how quickly they add new “therapies” to their practices, I would never see a complementary therapist for a medical condition. Give me a doctor, every time.

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The lymphatic system is part of your body’s immune system. It is a network of lymph vessels that goes to almost every part of your body. If you look at a diagram of the lymphatic system, it looks a bit like the circulatory system, with branches of vessels.

The Lymph Journey

The smallest branches of the lymphatic system are the lymph capillaries that drain lymph from the tissues. Lymph is carried from the capillaries to larger lymph vessels. These vessels empty lymph into two ducts in the upper body (right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct). It then goes into the subclavian veins and joins the bloodstream again. Lymph nodes and the other lymph organs protect the body against infection.

What is lymph?

Lymph is excess fluid that leaks out of blood vessels and collects in between the cells of the body’s tissues. It then drains into the network of lymph capillaries and moves through the lymph system until it is emptied back into the bloodstream.

What is a lymph node?

Lymph nodes are bean shaped filters along the lymphatic system. Inside each node are cavities containing two types of white blood cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) which neutralise or destroy micro-organisms in lymph before it goes back into the bloodstream. These play a big part in defending the body against infection. Lymph from most tissues filters through at least one node before returning to the bloodstream.

How does lymph circulate through the body?

When you move, your muscles cause pressure on the lymph system and push it through the vessels. There are valves in the vessels that prevent lymph from flowing backwards, so it can only move in one direction. This muscle action is also how blood in your veins is moved back up your body. Your heart pumps blood outwards through the arteries and your muscles help pump it back through the veins.

What else forms part of the lymphatic system?

The tonsils and adenoids produce antibodies to destroy bacteria from food and the air.

The lacrimal gland behind the eyelid produces tears with every blink. Tears contain a protective enzyme called lysozyme that kills bacteria.

The thymus gland is located behind the breastbone (sternum) and between the lungs. This is where disease-fighting T-cells (lymphocytes) mature.

The spleen is the largest of the lymph organs. It produces antibodies and also filters out damaged red blood cells.

The popliteal nodes are behind the knees and help drain excess lymph from the legs and feet.

Lymphocytes start off as stem cells in bone marrow. The largest of the white blood cells, monocytes, are also generated in the bone marrow. These migrate from the blood into tissue spaces where they develop into scavenger cells called macrophages that ingest bacteria and dead cells.

What is an inflammatory response?

If a disease micro-organism is detected in the body’s tissues, you may get an inflammatory response, which increases blood flow and brings special cells called neutrophils to the infected area to ingest and destroy the micro-organism.

What is an immune response?

If infection isn’t dealt with effectively by the inflammatory response, the body’s immune responses may be activated. This can be in the form of an antibody response or cellular defence. Inflammatory responses depend on white blood cells called B and T lymphocytes to provide protection against future infections.

What happens during an antibody response?

White blood cells called B lymphocytes recognise foreign molecules from disease organisms (antigens) that are different from the body’s natural proteins. Antigens trigger B cells to multiply. Some develop into plasma cells which secrete antibodies, which are special proteins that inactivate the antigens.

What happens during a cellular defence?

Antigens activate T cells to multiply. Killer T cells detect antigens and attack them with proteins called lymphokines. Some of the T cells become memory T cells which may survive for many years and respond to an attempted second invasion by the same antigen. They are able to mobilise rapidly.

What is Lymphatic Drainage Massage?

This is is a type of massage that aims to assist lymphatic drainage. The technique used is a way of assisting the lymph to pump back to the main lymph vessels so it returns to the bloodstream.

As with a lot of complementary therapies, there is a list of unproven claims made by therapists. It has been used to help reduce swelling (lymphoedema) after surgery, especially cancer surgery where lymph nodes may have been removed.

If you don’t have any swelling and it hasn’t been suggested by a doctor after cancer treatment or an operation, there is no need for you to have lymphatic drainage massage. The list of claims that lymphatic drainage massage can apparently do is to fix a sluggish lymphatic system, help you to detox, regenerate, ease sinusitis, relieve pain, constipation, insomnia, cellulite and aid weight loss.

None of these claims are proven. Your muscles help move lymph along the lymphatic system so it is doing its job just fine as long as you’re able to move normally. See my post on the liver and detoxing if you don’t already know that you can’t assist the body to detox. Massage cannot help to remove cellulite or aid weight loss. Some of the gels used may hydrate the cells in the surface of the skin, giving it a firmer appearance. You can do the same thing at home with a nourishing skin cream. Neither massage nor skin creams will get rid of cellulite though.

In Conclusion

Our bodies are amazing in the way they work and they do a good job on their own, most of the time. By understanding how your body works, you should be able to make better choices when it comes to making choices about your health.

Massage Myths

I was going to make the title Lies Massage Therapists Tell You, but this wouldn’t be fair because, although there is a lot of nonsense that massage therapists tell their clients, a lot of them truly believe what they’re saying because they were taught it. Even in the course I completed under an examining body that is highly rated, there was information about what massage can do for you that is just not possible. I’ll go through the main myths and help to explain these in terms of the body’s physiology and how they can’t possibly be true. The next time your massage therapist tells you something that doesn’t make sense, question them about why they believe that. There is very little regulation in complementary therapy in the UK and the quality of courses varies.

Massage removes toxins from your body and is great for detoxing

This is nonsense. Your liver detoxes your body at its own rate (see my post on the liver for more information). Nothing you can do will speed that up. If you have been exercising and your muscles are tight, a massage can help to ease the tightness in the soft tissues by improving circulation locally, which may help local toxin removal. This is not the same as the idea of a detox for the whole body.

You feel spaced out after a massage because toxins have been released

This myth was told to me by one of my clients who had heard it from another massage therapist, but it didn’t make sense to me. If massage released that many toxins that you felt light headed afterwards, it surely wouldn’t be good for you. In my own experience, I sometimes feel light headed after a massage and sometimes I feel fine. I have also had clients who normally have low blood pressure and occasionally get dizzy and they usually say they have the same light headed feeling after a massage.

This is what I have concluded and to me, this sounds like a more science-based reason: When you lie down, your blood pressure may drop. Your blood pressure also drops if you relax during a massage or if you were already tired. When you get up from the massage table afterwards, you may feel light headed because of this lowering of blood pressure. I can’t see any other reason, but I’m open to other theories, if they sound reasonable.

You need to drink lots of water after a massage

A number of my clients have been told this by other massage therapists who have told them that you lose water during a massage. If you’re having a sports massage and you’re sweating a lot, that’s fair enough as you’ll be losing fluid through sweat, but other that this, there’s no valid scientific reason why you need to drink more water. Drink when you are thirsty. Your body tells you when you need water. Even if you’ve had a sports massage, you don’t need to drink loads of water, just when you are thirsty.

Massage can speed up your metabolism

There is absolutely no evidence that this can happen during a massage and it makes no sense. Your metabolism is regulated by your endocrine system (which includes the thyroid gland). A massage can’t possibly influence this system and therefore your metabolism will be the same before and after a massage, even if you have regular massages.

Massage increases your blood circulation

This does happen on a local level, wherever you have been massaged. It won’t make a permanent difference if you feel you have poor circulation. It may increase during the massage and straight after and that’s it.

Massage can help you to lose weight and treat cellulite

I’m sorry to be the bearer of bad news. There’s no quick fix for weight loss or cellulite removal.

For cellulite, massage may help temporarily hydrate the cells in the surface of the skin (which is what cellulite creams do). The hydrated cells are fuller and give the skin a firmer appearance, so it may seem that cellulite has been removed, but once the skin returns to its normal state, you’ll notice less of a change. I would assume you’d be offered a course of massages to remove cellulite, rather than just one. You may also be told to eat healthily and exercise more, which may help the appearance of your skin if you weren’t already following a healthy lifestyle. You can do all this on your own without paying for massages. There is no proven research on massage for cellulite removal.

For weight loss, it makes no sense that massage would be of help. If you were changing to a healthier lifestyle, having a massage may help you feel more in touch with your body and more encouraged to lose weight by exercise and eating healthily. On its own, massage cannot make a difference.

Where it may possibly help is if you were retaining water, there are certain types of massage that may help to release excess fluid. However, if this is the case, you’d need to know why you were retaining water in the first place and you should see your GP first. If you retain water because of a medical condition and a massage helps to remove this, it will only be temporary because the underlying condition will still be present.

Massage can balance your energy

This is a concept from Chinese medicine and there is no scientific proof that any “energy” exists that needs to be balanced. There are therapists who take what sounds like a mysterious or romantic idea from another culture and mix it with accepted Western therapies, often having very little understanding of the culture they appropriated it from.

So what can massage do then?

Massage can help to relieve pain by easing tension in the soft tissue of the body. Tension can restrict movement, making it painful and uncomfortable. Massage can help to relieve this discomfort.

Massage can help you relax. Allowing someone else to take care of you for an hour or so can be psychologically therapeutic.

You may feel more in touch with your body after a massage. We learn to disconnect from our bodies as we get older. My clients are often surprised when an area of their bodies is tight because they were only aware of one other area that was causing a problem. People often get used to having tight shoulders that they hold high up, rather than relaxing and allowing them to drop naturally. After a massage, my clients often report that their shoulders feel like they’ve dropped back down. I ask them to focus on that feeling, so they know in future where their shoulders are meant to be.

Massage can help you recover after an injury. I’ve worked with clients after accidents and injuries. Mentally, it is helpful to have someone who wants to help you. Physically, when you’re healing from an injury or are on crutches, you end up using your other muscles to help out, which means they’re working harder than usual and there may be a build up of tension. Scar tissue may be reduced by regular sports massage.

Sports massage is helpful during training for a sports event or if you are very active. I have worked with professional dancers as well as people who are training for marathons and other sports events. Regular sports massage helps ease muscle tension, which helps muscle and joint flexibility. This in turn helps prevent injuries and improves performance.

Massage during pregnancy can help deal with aches and pains in the shoulders, lower back and hips. It can’t trigger labour though. I have been seeing pregnant women in my practice for twelve years and not one of them has gone into labour. Some of my clients have been at their due dates or even a little past and nothing I have done has made any difference to when the baby has arrived. It can make you more relaxed, it can help ease tension, it may even help you sleep better if tight muscle was preventing this, but that’s about it.

Massage during labour may help ease tension in the muscles of the hips and thighs. I teach a course to couples, so that fathers-to-be can learn a simple massage routine to help during labour. It focuses on the muscles that are being used during labour and so far, feedback has been positive.

In conclusion

There is, unfortunately, a lot of nonsense in the massage world. If you get told something that sounds wrong or silly by someone giving you a massage, why not ask them why or what the science behind it is? Perhaps they’ve never thought it through but were taught it at some point and you may be able to prevent that myth spreading further.

Food intolerance testing – the facts

From so-called nutritional experts to celebrities with no qualifications in diet to previously unknown food bloggers, everyone seems to be talking about what you should avoid eating and what the latest thing to eat is. None of this is usually based on science but becomes popular anyway. It’s become the norm for nutritionists/nutritional therapists and other complementary therapists to offer food intolerance testing. You can also buy off the shelf kits that you send away to companies who claim to be able to test for intolerances.

What is the difference between an allergy and a food intolerance?

An allergy is your body’s immune system reacting to something you’ve been exposed to. The part your body reacts to is called an allergen. Your immune system releases histamines which can end up causing anything from a rash, swelling, wheezing, anaphylactic shock or death. The number of people who react to allergens is actually small.

More often, people have what is called non-allergic hypersensitivity, what we usually call an intolerance. Your body reacts to an allergen, but the immune system isn’t involved. It’s not life threatening, but can be uncomfortable.

How do you become allergic to certain foods?

When you’re a baby, you start becoming exposed to different food allergens. Usually, if you’re going to have a food allergy, you don’t react the first time you’re exposed. What often happens is that you become sensitised to the allergen and at a later point, if you are exposed often enough to that allergen, you may get an allergic reaction when the immune system reacts.

What happens inside your body to make you allergic?

While your body is being sensitised to an allergen, your white blood cells create antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). If, after you’ve been sensitised, you are exposed to an allergen again, the IgE antibodies cause an immune reaction.

Can you be allergic and not know it?

Yes you can. You can become sensitised to an allergen but never have an allergic reaction. This is called latent allergy and it’s not dangerous. Most people who have a latent allergy aren’t aware of it, unless they get tested for it using a testing method to test for IgE.

What is a food intolerance?

To digest food, you need the right amount of a certain enzyme to break down food. If your body doesn’t produce enough of this enzyme, you may feel bloated, have wind or get diarrhoea. This is your digestive system reacting, not your immune system. This is called an enzymatic food reaction.

There is another type of food intolerance where you react to certain chemicals in foods, which can be naturally occurring (e.g. caffeine) or food additives (e.g. sulphites). This is called a pharmacological food reaction.

How do you test for an allergy?

Doctors and qualified medical health professionals test you to see if the IgE antibodies are present for the allergen they suspect you may be allergic to. They will take a history from you beforehand to try to work out which food may be causing the problem. This, along with the test, gives them the result. There are two tests that are most often done to check for food allergies. These are the skin prick test and the Specific IgE Blood Test.

If IgE antibodies are not present for a particular allergen, you probably don’t have an allergy. If you do have IgE antibodies, it just means that you have been sensitised to the allergen but are not necessarily allergic. That’s why the doctor will take a full history. The tests can only show part of the picture.

What other tests are there?

This list contains some of the types of testing available from complementary therapists. None of them are based on actual science and have no proven value.

  • Applied Kinesiology
  • Measuring the pulse (also known as Auricular Cardiac Reflex)
  • Hair Strand Analysis
  • Cytotoxic Test (examining the white blood cells)
  • Vega Test
  • IgG or IgG4 blood tests
  • Some therapists truly believe they are providing a valuable and accurate test. For others, it’s just a way to make extra money. Making a living as a complementary therapist is not always easy. There is a lot of competition and, in my experience, most therapists offer a variety of therapies. The lack of regulation in the complementary therapies industry means tests that are not proven to be accurate can be offered by therapists who have completed short courses and who are not health professionals.

    Just because a shiny leaflet has what sounds like a plausible explanation of their testing, doesn’t mean it’s based on proven science. Tests based on unproven theories may end up diagnosing non-existent illnesses. You may be told you have an allergy or intolerance caused by chemicals, pesticides, electromagnetic radiation, preservatives, Candida, medication, hormones, leaky gut syndrome, wheat, yeast, sugar or coffee.

    What’s the harm in alternative testing?

    You may be encouraged to change your diet to exclude certain foods that you are told you have an intolerance or allergy to. The foods you eat contain nutrients and micronutrients that, if removed from your diet, need to be replaced. Often, therapists will tell you this, but then attempt to sell you supplements to replace the missing nutritients or suggest herbal remedies to treat you. If you can’t afford to buy the supplements but remove the foods from your diet unnecessarily, you may end up with a deficiency.

    The main fads right now are gluten free and dairy free diets. Dairy contains calcium and if you cut it out completely and don’t ensure you are getting enough calcium, you risk getting fractures. Cutting out gluten if you don’t have a gluten intolerance doesn’t make you healthier. Again, you may be missing out on important nutrients.

    What is the IgG or IgG4 Test?

    I’ve seen this test being offered quite a lot lately, so I am concentrating on this rather than the others.

    This test measures your body’s reaction to IgG or IgG4 antibodies in foods. There are four subclasses of IgG antibodies, which is why IgG4 is sometimes tested. When you eat, you develop IgG antibodies to allergens, which is a normal response that shows you’ve been exposed to that food but not that you’ve been sensitised to it. What the IgG response does is protect you and stop you developing the IgE allergy by remembering to suppress a response when you eat that food again.

    Imagine your body is like a computer. You eat a certain food and your body makes a little code so next time you eat it, it already knows how to respond. You’ll either get the IgE code if it doesn’t want to accept that food again and then you’ll have an immune response or it will get an IgG code to say, that’s okay, I’ve had that before, I know what it is and you won’t have any reaction to the food.

    The companies selling IgG blood tests and the therapists offering them may tell you that IgG antibodies are linked to delayed food sensitivities and chronic symptoms. They may tell you that IgG-based diets that exclude certain foods will help relieve chronic illness. What they don’t tell is that it’s been shown that having these IgG antibodies is simply a sign of exposure to a food and tolerance of that food, not that you shouldn’t be eating it.

    If you get tested for IgG levels, you may be told the levels are high for certain foods. There is no accepted level, so there is no high, medium or low level. Everyone will have a different level. It depends on various things, like how much of that food you’re eating and possibly how you were fed as a baby. Based on levels of IgG, someone who is perfectly healthy will get the same diagnosis as someone who has symptoms. This makes no sense.

    The most common allergens are wheat and milk. You wouldn’t be having an allergy or food intolerance test if there was nothing wrong with you, would you? So, if you get advised to exclude wheat and milk after an IgG test and you feel better, you will most likely believe the test was correct.

    If I have a food intolerance, what’s the best way to work out what it is?

    Elimination diets have been successfully used to work out what foods are causing symptoms. An elimination diet is done over several weeks where you start with a very plain diet to stop any symptoms and then introduce one new food. If that food causes a reaction, you make a note of it and go back to the plain diet until your symptoms go away. Then you introduce another food. This goes on until you’ve worked out what you are sensitive to. Apart from milk and wheat, eggs, tea, coffee and oranges commonly give symptoms. Make sure you see a registered dietician before starting an elimination diet to make sure you are doing it right and to get proper medical advice.

    Your liver, what it does and why detox products don’t work

    The basics about your liver

    Your liver is the largest internal organ in your body. It weighs about 1.5kg. It works as part of your digestive system. It has two blood supplies, which is unusual in our bodies. It gets blood that is rich in oxygen from the hepatic artery and also blood rich in nutrients from the portal vein.

    When you eat food, it gets digested and then processed by the liver. Glucose, fat, vitamins and minerals are stored by liver cells. These cells also release glucose so your body can use it for energy.

    The liver is your main detox organ because it removes poisons (toxins) and bacteria from the blood. It breaks down old red blood cells. It also breaks down fat from food you’ve eaten and uses this to make bile, which is a digestive fluid. The liver converts waste and toxins into less harmful substances.

    As the liver works, it releases heat. This helps keep your body warm and is an important part of keeping you alive (as well as the whole detoxing process).

    Just behind the liver, is the gall bladder. It looks like a green bag the size of a kiwi fruit. This is where the greenish-brown liquid called bile is stored. Bile plays an important part in the digestion of fats and is also partly a waste product of the liver’s chemical processes.

    What products can you buy to detox your body?

    The short answer is, none.

    The only detox that can be done to you, is if you’ve ingested a poison and have a medical treatment done by doctors at a hospital. Other than that, no tea, smoothie, diet, supplement or colonic irrigation is going to detox your body. It’s just not medically possible.

    Inside your body, the liver isn’t alone in detoxing you. Your kidneys, lungs and skin help out too. You don’t end up with a whole load of toxins sitting around, not being able to be removed naturally. The body has a process of waste removal and it can’t be increased or improved by buying something to eat or drink or having a particular complementary therapy. You can help your body by eating a balanced, healthy diet, not drinking too much alcohol and having regular exercise. That’s it really.

    Detoxing isn’t a thing

    Think about it, if you could swallow a pill or drink something that could make your liver and other organs work faster, would that even be good for you? If it did, it might end up being dangerous and doing you harm. The fact that detox products don’t usually do any harm, is because they don’t actually affect toxin removal. The only increased removal is of money from your wallet.

    Medical professionals vs complementary therapists

    Complementary therapists are not medical professionals. They may wear a pseudo-medical uniform and be great at sales talk about buying a product or therapy to make you feel better. Just because a therapist believes in a product or therapy, doesn’t mean it’s scientifically sound.

    If you need advice about nutrition, see a registered dietician. Dieticians are qualified health professionals who have a degree in the science of nutrition. The term “nutritionist” is not a protected term and there are courses that vary in quality, from being asked online multiple choice questions to get a certificate to weekend workshops or longer, more intensive courses. The problem is, you won’t know which type of course was completed.

    A registered dietician will give you advice on what you should eat to stay healthy from a scientific and medical viewpoint. A nutritionist may do the same, or may suggest buying products from them. I like the easy route as much as the next person, but there are limits to what is actually possible.

    If you’ve taken the easy route and skipped all the way down to the end of this article, here’s the gist: stick to a mainly healthy lifestyle and your liver should be absolutely fine and do its job as it should. You don’t need to waste money on detox products or services as there’s no scientific proof they work at all.

    Donating blood

    Today, I donated blood and I thought explaining all about the process and why it’s needed, would be a good way to start this blog. So here goes:

    Your blood is made up of a few different things. It contains red blood cells, plasma (the fluid part of your blood) and platelets. After you donate blood, it gets separated into the different parts so it can be used to treat more than one person, depending on what they need.

    One of my clients had a major accident in 2016 and the blood she received as a transfusion saved her life. Blood can also be used to treat cancer, anaemia (not enough red blood cells or when the red blood cells have low haemoglobin, i.e. low iron), during surgery and after childbirth (although obviously not every birth results in a large loss of blood).

    If you are healthy, you can usually donate blood. I registered online and received emails welcoming me and giving me information about donating. After I booked an appointment to donate blood locally, I received a letter confirming my appointment and there was also a questionnaire that you have to complete every time you donate. It’s just a simple one where you tick Yes or No and sign and date it, so it’s not difficult and it’s quick to fill out.

    On the day of my appointment, I make sure I’ve eaten a meal not too long before I donate blood. I skipped a meal once and was very light headed afterwards and felt like I was going to collapse. That’s one mistake I won’t be repeating. You also need to make sure you drink lots of water. The day you donate needs to be a day when you’re not going to do anything strenuous.

    At my appointment, I always get given a leaflet to read. It’s the same one every time but they have to give it to you so you understand the process. Then you sit and wait to be called by a nurse who pricks your finger with a needle to take a drop of blood. The blood is dropped into a tube of liquid and if it falls to the bottom of the tube within a certain time, it means you have enough iron in your blood that it’s safe for you to donate. The nurse also asks you a few questions about your health and checks that you are who you say you are and then you go to another chair and wait to actually give blood.

    When you get called by the next nurse, you get to sit in a cool comfy chair that tips a little bit backwards so you don’t feel dizzy while you’re giving blood. The actual donation process takes about 5 to 10 minutes. Your blood pressure is tested beforehand and then the area where they’ll be putting in the needle is cleaned with a cotton ball soaked in some alcohol solution, I think. The needle is probably what scares most people, but I’ve become used to watching it go in (okay, maybe I’m a bit strange). It does hurt a bit but not as bad as someone kicking you in the shin. More like a sharp pinch.

    The blood then goes down a tube to a bag that it collects in. While you’re giving blood, you slowly make a fist and release it, which helps to keep the blood pumping out by using the action of your muscles. The bag collects 470ml of blood.

    When the bag collecting your blood is full, it makes a Vegas casino style noise and the nurse will come and remove the needle and put pressure on your arm to stop it from bleeding. Then you’ll get a plaster taped on that has an extra cotton roll on it which puts a bit of pressure on the area where the needle was. You can take the pressure roll off after 30 minutes. You need to leave the plaster on for 6 hours afterwards.

    After you’ve finished donating blood, you can sit down and have something to eat or drink (it’s free and is usually biscuits, crisps, tea, water or squash). This is so you make sure you’re not feeling dizzy when you leave. If you do feel dizzy, they’ll just pop you in one of the cool chairs and tip it slightly backwards so more blood flows towards your head. After a while, you’ll feel better and can have a drink and something to eat.

    When I donate blood, I make sure I can take it easy for the rest of the day. Today, I popped over to a clothes shop to see if there was anything I liked (there wasn’t) so I got on the bus and went home. I made sure I booked the appointment for my day off work, so I could easily donate and relax for the rest of the day.

    So you probably want to know how long it takes your body to replenish the blood that was taken. The plasma part is replaced within 24 hours. The red blood cells take about four to six weeks to be completely replaced. That’s why you can’t keep donating blood every week or two. It just wouldn’t be safe for you to do that. In the UK, men can give blood every 12 weeks and women every 16 weeks. From reading a few articles online, it looks like the length of time in the US is shorter (8 weeks for men).

    It feels good knowing I’ve helped someone who needs my blood. A few weeks afterwards, I receive a text telling me which hospital received my blood. It’s not necessarily even one in your own area. It could be on the other side of the country, so a total stranger who I will never meet has my blood in them. I think that’s really great.

    If you want to find out more information or think you’d like to become a blood donor, the NHS Blood and Transplant site is